Scientific background to definition of ‘genetically modified’

The Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code sets requirements for the use and labelling of genetically modified ingredients in food. The definition of ‘gene technology’ differs amongst different pieces of legislation and is currently (as at September 2023) being reviewed by Food Standards Australia New Zealand. This article identifies differences in various genetic modification technologies in a food context, and discusses differences in definitions between the Food Standards Code, the Gene Technology Act, as well as under international laws. We also identify some of the issues that Food Standards Australia New Zealand might need to consider in its review of definitions.